Friday, December 25, 2009
Friday, December 18, 2009
Sunday, December 13, 2009
Venue: Sri Laxminarayana Temple Kg. Kasipillay of Jalan Ipoh
Date : On Dec. 13, 2009 at 7.01pm in Telugu
Venue : Sri Venkateswara Temple Batu Caves
Date : On Dec. 14, 2009 at 7.01pm open English / Telugu / Tamil
All TAM Branches are encouraged to bring 100 participants each Branch. Kindly organize your members to be at Sri Laxminarayana Temple. As an auspicious and divine occasion, let’s all Malaysian Telugus open our hearts to share goodwill and brotherhood. Let’s celebrate humanity on this special day and participate in the events. Every initiative taken to support the occasion will go a long way in protecting our Telugu Customs and Culture. For more information, kindly contact
Dr. Achaiah Kumar Rao at 012 – 3045594 / Sri Sree Ramulu at 012 – 3961722 or any of our TAM Branch Chairmen or CWC members.
HH Chinna Jeeyar Swami
formed with Mangalasasanams(blessings) of His Holiness Sri Sri Sri Tridandi
Srimannarayana Ramanuja Chinna Jeeyar Swamiji Our Sri Swamiji, a profound Sanskrit scholar, Realized Soul, an epitome of Learning & Enlightenment, and embodiment of Divine Sampath (Divine Wealth) started the JET (Jeeyar Educational Trust) in 1982 at Sithanagaram,Guntur Dist. India, with units in Hyderabad (1983) India, Narayankund Nepal (1985), Rajahmundry India (1991), Madras India (1993) and JET USA Inc. USA(1995). "Vikasatharangini" a Youth Force, started by Sri Swamiji with hundreds of youth forming its core, has been instrumental in executing several Spiritual and Social projects. All the virtuous ideas and plans of Sri Swamiji for the spiritual upliftment and enrichment of Humanity are executed by different units of Jeeyar Educational Trust.Sri Swamiji is one of the youngest acharyas in India, who mastered different branches of the Vedic Dharma. In 1980, H.H. Pedda Jeeyar Swamiji attained Siddhi and H.H.
Chinna Jeeyar Swamiji took over the spiritual lineage. In 1981, Swamiji became the full-fledged head and acharya of Srimad Ubhaya Vedantha Acharya Peetam, Nadigaddapalem. Sri Swamiji went to Badarinath the abode of Lord Narayana and did penance, reciting the all-powerful Ashtakshari Maha Manthra. Since then, Sri Swamiji has developed the spiritual activities in a manifold way.
His Holiness Sri Swamiji is conducting the following services at different places:
1.) The Vedic University in India
2.) The Ashtakshari Kshethram and Sathsanga Sadanam at Badarinath and Nithya
3.) Nithya annadanam scheme at Melkote Karnataka
4.) Brindavanam at Nadigaddapalem
5.) Publishing Bhakthi Nivedana in both Telugu and English
6.) Different types of services through Vikasatharangini
Let us participate in this great universal mission started by Sri Swamiji undertaken for
the welfare of mankind and universal peace.
Tuesday, December 1, 2009
To date, there are about 1050 students who are following POL Telugu classes at some of the government schools such as at Bagan Datoh, Sungai Sumun,Hutan Melintang,Teluk Intan, Klang, Shah Alam, Sunway, Puchong, Batu Caves, Rawang Sitiawan, Bahau, Kulim and Sungai Petani which totals to about 35 classes.
But what is saddened and disappointed is, ever since 1993 Telugu language is not being offered any more as an optional subject in LCE/PMR and MCE examinations.
We are only ask our mother-tongue which was here prior to independence and after independence till 1992 to be reinstated in PMR/SPM examination so that Telugu language and culture will not be decimated.
Source : TAM / Telugu Malaysian- my small role in Telugu POL classes
Saturday, November 28, 2009
The Education camp will be from 21st Nov to 13th Dec 2009. at SJK(T) Lunas Kedah. This school is newly renovated 3 storey building
The expertise from Andhra Pradesh also teaching and share the new teaching Methodology in easy way of learning to master in reading and writing Telugu.
Thursday, November 26, 2009
Who are the Malaysian Telugu?
What are their lives like?
What do they believe?
Reference: Indian Cluster
Friday, November 20, 2009
Showing timings : 11.30am, 2.30pm, 6.30 pm and 9.30 pm. For inquiries/bookings, contact Bhanu - 0173023078, Sri-0162525309, Prem -0132271732, Prasad-0169487621.
Lets go and support this Telugu Movie so that more Telugu Movies would be screened in Malaysia which in one way or rather promotes Telugu language and let the Telugu presence felt more widely in Malaysia.
It recalls to me, as in the 60's Perak film Distributer from Sg Nibong, Teluk Intan(Anson) followed by Laxmi Films, Bagan Pasir, Bagan Datoh and laterly Sri Venkatesh of TAM who is also known as tape uncle played important role in screening Telugu films in Malaysia.
I hope and pray Telugus movies/DVDs/ CD would be screened and circulated, widely and to continue for away.
Thursday, November 19, 2009
Tuesday, November 17, 2009
The idea of World Telugu Conference was first mooted during the period of P. V. Narasimha Rao as Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. The conference was held from 12 to 18 April 1975. It began on the Ugadi festival day with 'Ugadi Pachadi' and flag hoisting. A Commemorative stamp was issued by the Government of India in this connection. The stamp containing the 12th Century idol of Goddess Saraswati, besides the following three sayings in Telugu script, "Desa Bhashalandu Telugu Lessa, "Endaro Mahanubhavulu", "Panchadara kanna, Panasatonala kanna, Kamma tena kanna Telugu minna".
The Exhibition on the cultural heritage of the Telugus was inaugurated at Exhibition grounds, Nampally. The exhibition was an epitome of 2,500 years long history of Telugu people. In all, 53 oil paintings, 247 photographs of prominent Telugu persons, 29 charts, 40 pictures from Nagarjuna Konda, 10 maps, 6 drawings, 8 ancient royal seals, replica of Amaravathi pillar and a number of ancient palm-leaf manuscripts were exhibited in the pavilion.
Various cultural programmes in about 100 items were presented. About 1500 artists participated and daily more than 2 lakh people enjoyed the programmes. Two hundred and thirty nine persons, who were known for their eminence at the State, National or International level were honored during the conference.
About 80 monographs on the Telugu language, literature, history and culture were published on this occasion. Majority of them were issued by the Sahitya Akademi Souvenirs in Telugu, English, Hindi and Urdu were published.
Ninety two delegated and observers from 16 countries attended this maiden conference. One representative each from Mauritius and UNESCO and two from Russia attended the conference as governmental nominees. 921 delegated from the other states and 4489 delegates from all the districts of Andhra Pradesh participated in the conference.There were also a number malaysian delegates participated.The grandly held and well appreciated conference was concluded with Valedictory address by the President of India Sri Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed.
Second World Telugu Conference in Malaysia
Second World Telugu Conference was held at Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya, Malaysia from 11th to 14th of April, 1981. The conference was organized by the Telugu Association of Malaysia (TAM). Dr. A. C. Apparao was then the President of TAM.
It was launched by the then Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia, Dr. Mahathir Mohamad and was attended by more than 2000 Telugu political figures, academicians, artists, poets and Telugu enthusiasts from Malaysia, India, Singapore, Fiji, Mauritius, South Africa, United Kingdom and USA. Amongst the prominent foreign Telugus who graced the function were: the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, T. Anjayya, Education Minister M. V. Krishna Rao, Cultural Minister, Battam Sree Rama Murthy, Bejawada Gopala Reddy, Vavilala Gopala Krishnayya, Vempati Chinna Satyam, poets Dr.Dasarathi, Dr.C.Narayana reddy, Dr.Bapu Reddy, Ambassodor N.V.Rao, movie ace producer U.Visweswara Rao, cine artists Satyanarayana, Prabakar Reddy, Sharath Babu, Jamuna, Kanchana, Jayachitra and others.
The four day function had a number of activities such as the Malaysian Night, a Telugu exhibition, Academic sessions, cultural activities and a Telugu Film Festival. A 10 day exhibition of Andhra culture, arts and crafts and history was held at the National Museum. All art effects and material for the exhibition was brought in to Malyasia with the help of Government of Andhra Pradesh. The exhibition was organized under the chairmanship of Mr.V.N.Ramachandran with help obtained from the then National Museum Director Mr. Sharom Yeop and Prof. Khoo Kay Kim of University Malaya.
The Malaysian night which exhibited Malay cultural performances, Boria in Telugu by Koathala Ramunaidu and group, ‘Burra Katha’ on the history of Malaysian Telugus written by Beesetty Nokiah and performed by Apparao, Gangaraju and Maniam, Chiratalu by some youths from Kuala Bernam Estate, Bagan Datoh headed by Sri Adduri Juval and other cultural performances. Numerous academic sessions were held to discuss on the various aspects of Telugu language, culture, arts, history and future.
The evenings were filled with cultural activities mainly brought under the Ministry of Culture and Minister Bhattam Sri Rama Murthy. Amongst the prominent cultural performances were the Dr.Bala Muralikrishna’s melodious Keerthanas, Dr.Chitti Babu’s Veena recital, Vempati Chinna Satyams's Disciples Kuchipudi dance performances, Raja Reddy Kuchipudi Dance performances and Drama and Comedy performances by movie artist. The Telugu Film Festival has screened some award winning Telugu movies such as Alluri Seetharama Raju, Shankarabharanam, Muthyala Muggu and Bhaktha Kannappa.
World Telugu Conference Committee Meeting 10-11/9/2005
Dr Paul Naidu, President and myself (Enkatesulu Juvalu) represented at above meeting held 10 -11/ 9/2005 at the Jubilee Hall, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. Of the matters discussed were on unity and better ties of the World Telugu Assocations and Telugu culture.
Friday, November 13, 2009
New Telugu Movie Ek Niranjan being screened on 21-22/11/09 at Sentul Cinema, Sentul, Kuala Lumpur. Showing timings : 11.30am, 2.30pm, 6.30pm and 9.30pm. For inquiries/bookings, contact Bhanu - 0173023078, Sri-0162525309, Prem -0132271732, Prasad-0169487621.
Lets support this Telugu Movie so that more Telugu Movies would be screened in Malaysia which in one way or rather promotes Telugu language and let the Telugu presence felt more widely in Malaysia.
Ek Niranjan is a 2009 Telugu film starring Prabhas Raju Uppalapati and Kangana Ranaut in lead roles. The film is directed by Puri Jagannadh and is the second film with the combination of this director and Prabhas, as they had worked together earlier for Bujjigadu. Produced by Aditya Ram, the film has been shot on a specially erected set in Hyderabad and shot in Bangkok and the songs have been shot in Switzerland.
The film revolves around Chotu (Prabhas), who is a bounty hunter getting criminals to the police in exchange for money and how he reunites with his parents he never got to meet due to the fact he was kidnapped.
The movie began shooting in April and ended in September. The movie released on October 29 2009.
Thursday, November 12, 2009
About 1000 gathered to enjoy the Deepavali Samarpana which was filled with diverse number of songs, mimicry,drama and comedy. To note, about 40 Telugu members came from Bagan Datoh, Telok Intan, Perak to attend the above.
The guest of honour was YB Dato' S K Devamany, the Deputy Minister in the Prime Minister office cum MIC Vice President and Sri B N Reddy,the Acting Indian High Commissioner to Malaysia also graced this occasion.
Please visit my face book: enkatesulu :to view more photos
Thursday, October 29, 2009
Friday, October 23, 2009
The PM calls for 1 Malaysia that is to accept and respect all cultural, religious and linguistic values by all Malaysian appears have not reached to ASTRO. I believe 1 Malaysia is not only focused on Malays, Chinese and Tamils in this country but also minorities like Telugus, Malayali, Punjabis and others.
Deepavali, a festival celebrated by all Hindus in the world but Astro is projecting as though if it belongs to only our Tamils brothers and sisters.
From the day of independence, the Telugu society had never once let down to give its sincere and strong support to the Ruling Government party. The community has strived to excel in all walks of life and contributed in many ways to the development and peace of this country for all most a century. The Telugu community has been a peaceful citizen and posed no burden to the government in any way.
Obviously, until today the close to 300K Telugu populations in Malaysia was not given a fair attention and the privilege and one of it is to view much of their mother tongue programmes.
It has been decades the responsible broadcasting Medias failed to fulfill the cries of the Telugu community in this country. Over private TV Astro which has 6 channels to cater for Indian views but very sadden that only 4 Telugu moives on sundays 4.00pm-6.30pm;mondays 1100am -1.30pm, wednesdays 2.00 am- 4.30 am & Thursday 4.00 pm - 6.30pm and a drama serial of the 4 repeated serials are shown for every week but whatever appealing and begging them, but unheard.
Annually RTM promised and even issued letter to WP/Selangor branch (Sri A Appanah Naidu was the chairman of the WP/Selangor branch, then) to telecast 3 Telugu films over TV 2. But to date, only 1 Telugu movie is shown during Telugu New Year. While TV 3 and Ntv 7 almost nil on Telugu programmes. And over Radio completely no Telugu slot on Sundays over Minnal Radio.
In many occasions, either directly or indirectly we have been deprived the rights to even enjoy basic entertainment in our own mother tongue via the public and private broadcasting TV stations. Even attempts after attempts we merely face negligence with unconvincingly feeble excuses from responsible quarters. Looking at the way this community is positioned we foresee the society on the track of mere extinction.To this issue, it is only fair to ask as a minority group like the Telugus in this country should be allowed to see their mother-tongue languages programmes over Satellite Tv being allowed. Anyway, there are thousand illegal satellite dishes around the country.
Looking at the reality, why not make legal for minority groups such as Telugus to view Satellite Tv?
“Hilang Bahasa Hilang Bangsa” dan “ Rakyat didahulukan Pencapaian diutamakan”
Friday, October 16, 2009
Deepavali, which is traditionally an occasion Indian communities to celebrate the victory of good over evil, is however observed a bit differently by the Telugus from the south..
While most Hindus take oil baths and offer prayers to deceased family members on Deepavali, but the Telugus does it during Sakranthri in January.
A day before Sakranthri is known as Boghi. And on Boghi day, Telugus will usually apply a mixture of tumeric powder, green bean paste and sesame oil on our bodies to symbolically remove impurities before gathering with other family members around a campfire. This is usually done in the early morning on the Boghi day.
On the Deepavali festival day after the morning baths, Telugus too will wear new clothes. As for the women, their sarees are usually tied in a kuddupaita style, where the pallu or the decorative end of the saree is draped over the right shoulder rather than the left shoulder as most of Telugus of Malaysia follow Vishakapatam suroundings of Andhra Pradesh Telugus does. On Deepavali day vegetarian food is observed.
Sunday, October 11, 2009
About a week ago, the floods in Andhra Pradesh caused extensive damage to property and crops besides human and animal causalities. About 90 villages on the bank of Krishana and Thugabadra rivers were affected. Andhra pradesh is facing its worst disaster - Kurnool , Mahabubnagar and Vijyawada districts are most affected with floods
About 1.34 laks of flood victims are taking shelter in 74 relief centres. About 11,600 houses were damaged fully, crops in 3,256 hectors were inundated.
On 10/10/2009 TAM organised Hi Tea reception to raise funds at the Telugu Samaskruthika Nilayam, Rawang, Malaysia.
As the collection is on going, and you are kindly invited to donate to TAM or bank in in favor of Telugu Association of Malaysia, CIMB Bank A/C No. 1408 – 1159380 – 00 – 4.
Afterwhich, make a copy of your bank in slip and write your name, address and tel. no. and SMS to below hp numbers or post to Telugu Bhavanamu9-1A, Udarama Complex, Jalan 1/64A,Off Jalan Ipoh 53500 Kuala Lumpur
Telugu Association of Malaysia take’s this opportunity to thank your kindself for your donations,assistance and support.
For more details kindly call Dr. Achaiah Kumar Rao at 012 – 3045594 /Sri G.T. Natchana at 012 – 2011214/ Sri Venkatesh 016-2154097
Tuesday, October 6, 2009
Telugu Samskruthika Nilayam -this project is the brain-child of Dr. Paul Naidu
Telugu Association of Malaysia (TAM) has embarked on an ambitious project to construct a Telugu Saamskruthika Nilayam(TSN) in an areacovering 2.5 acres, located north of Rawang town.Selangor, Malaysia.
Subsequently, after due valuation, the search and examination, the price was progressively re-negotiated until it was brought down. to RM1.25 million in the interest of the organization at large. If negotiating and striking a good deal was a tough job, the process of applying and obtaining a bank loan proved to be tougher. After much submitting and re-submitting, the bank approved the loan only after obtaining the personal undertaking of the President( Sri Paul naidu), General Secretary( Sri P S Ramanaidu) and General Treasurer ( Sri J S Maniam) to act as Guarantors.
And all along the Executive council members and branches of TAM had to launch a vigorous donation drive from North to South. Inspire of all the traveling, appealing, arguing and giving explanations of the above purchase. There were those members and well-wishers who gave TAM encouragement, motivation and moral support. At the end of day, RM500, 000/- cash was raised to facilitate the down payment.
Upon registration of the TSN property, the Gruha Pravesam was grandly officiated by Y Bhg Tan Sri Datuk Dr K R. Somasundram, Executive Chairman, NLFCS and about 500 graced this occasion on 20/8/2000.
In the 1980s, the purchasing of Telugu Bhavanamu along Jalan Ipoh, Kuala Lumpur under the leadership of Dr A C Apparao was like a dream coming true of our founders of Telugu Association while TSN was a more than reality of the present Telugus.
The main aim to establish a cultural centre for our Telugu community in line with our objectives of TAM - to promote Telugu language,art,culture,social and economic aspects of our community. The full fledge centre shall eventually provide a cultural centre, administrative office anda multi-purpose hall centre.
TSN will be the centre to propagate our rich Telugu cultural heritage in South East Asia.
Saturday, September 26, 2009
This great poet saint Annamarcharya who loves music and who worship the Supreme Lord Sri Venkateswara Swamy. As known as“Telugu Pada Kavita Pitamaha, the great grand poet born once in a million years, it is proud of Telugu Literature. He is like an ever shining jewel in the grandeur of Lord Venkateswara.
Sri Tallapaka Annamacharya (1408 - 1503) is an Indian poet and musician widely regarded as the Telugu pada kavita pitaamaha. An ardent devotee of Lord Venkateswara of Tirupati, AP. Annamacharya is also known as Annamayya. He successfully composed more than 32,000 Sankeertanas in praise of Lord Venkateswara, the deity of seven hills at Tirumala, India where unbroken worship is being offered for over 12 centuries. It is a rare feat which is near impossible to replicate! The Sankeertanas were found engraved on copper plates which were hidden for centuries inside the Sri Venkateswara temple at Tirumala.
Annamacharya considered his compositions as floral offerings to God. In the poems, he praises Venkateswara, describes his love for him, argues and quarrels with the Lord, confesses the devotee’s failures and apprehensions, and surrenders himself to Venkateswara. His songs are classified into Adhyaatamika (Spiritual) and Sringaara (Romantic) Samkirtanas.
Annamacharya had composed and sang 32,000 sankeertanas (devotional poems), 12 Satakas (sets of hundred verses) Ramayana in the form of Dwipada, Sankeertana Lakshanam (Characteristics of Sankeertanas), Sringara Manjari (romantic poems) and Venkatachala Mahathyam. His works were mainly in Telugu and Sanskrit.
At one point, Annamacharya was once hand-cuffed and sent to the jail. The king ordered the soldiers to torture him until he obeys to sing praising the King. Annamacharya was even beaten mercilessly. When Annamacharya was singing a keerthana praising the Lord of Seven Hills saying that He is the only succour for him, amidst thundering flash the hand-cuffs broken instantly on their own and fell down. On learning the miracle the king Saluva rushed to the prison and fell on Annamacharya’s feet seeking pardon for his terrible mistake. His entire ego was shattered by the eternal devotion of saint Annmacharya for Lord Venkateswara.
When Annmacharya was in Tirumala he introduced many rituals and festivals celebrating and hailing the Lord. It was Annamacharya who first started and decided to perform “Nitya Kalyanotsavam” (the ever celebrated marriage ceremony) of the Lord Srinivasa with Goddess Sri Devi and Bhoodevi. Many other rituals and festivals introduced by Annmacharya are still followed in Tirumala Temple. He spent many years in Tirumala Temple composing and singing millions of songs on Lord Venkateswara Swamy.
The songs of Annamacharya inspired and motivated even the people of backward classes to have the darshan of that divine Lord. The great saint has composed and sang songs like “Kondalalo Nelakona Koneti rayadu vadu..! Kondalanta varamulu guppedu vadu..!” which means the God is our local who lives with us in these rocks and caves blessing one and all equally. “Tandanana Ahi Tandananapure… Tandanana bhala Tandanana… Brahmamokkate Parabrahmamokkate…. Parabrahmamokkate Parabrahmamokkate II…and"Tandana Padam" which is sung with a folk instrument called "Dappu" to propagate the Truth of equality of all human beings.
Annamacharya used to write the keerthans on palm leaves. When a group of miscreants were burning the Annamacharya's keerthans. As news reached to the King Saluva Narasimharaya who then decided to preserve this treasure forever and decided to engrave them in copper plates. With the help of Annamacharyas son Tirumalacharya the sankeerthanas saved from fire were engraved into copper plates. After completion of the engraving work, the great saint Annamacharya left the millions of his well-wishers and lovers in sorrow as he died on 23rd of February 1503 A.D. According to Telugu calendar the month is "PHALGUNAM", the Tithi (A day in a month according to the position of the Moon) is "BAHULA DWADASI".
The treasures of Annamacharya engraved in copper plates were hidden in a rock built cell opposite to Hundi (donation sack) in the Tirumala Temple unnoticed for over 400 years. His Son, Peda Tirumalacharya and Grandson, Chinatirumalacharya got the Sankeertanas of Annamacharya engraved on copper-plates and Treasured those Copper Plates in "Sankeertana Bhandaram" (a rock-built-cell at TIRUMALA temple. For many years the great saint Annamacharya had remained in the darkness. His songs were sung among people of Andhra Pradesh. But unfortunately, nobody knows the real creator of those songs until those valuable treasures of Annamacharya were found.
It was only in the year 1922, two thousand and five hundred copper plates comprising of 14,000 sankeertanas and a few other works were found in the rock built cell. The cell was later named as “Sankeerthana Bhandagaram” which means a treasury of poems opposite to the Hundi. It was only during the decades of 1970 the facts of Annamayya and Tallapaka Village has come into light.
Ever since the discovery of this lost treasure, Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams (TTD) and other organizations in India are working hard to promote the music and literature of Annamacharya in India and around world.
Saturday, September 19, 2009
Browse information about ancient and sacred temple of Sri Venkateswara,darshan, seva and festivals. which includes details about travel and accommodations darshan, seva and festivals.
And see live telecast of Annual Brahmotasavamfestival on 21/9/2009 @ 6.00 pm
Tirumala Venkateswara Temple (Telugu: తిరుమల వేంకటేశ్వర దేవాలయం), also known as Tirupati Venkateswara Temple is a famous Hindu Temple of Lord Venkateswara located in the hill town Tirumala, Andhra Pradesh. The temple is located on the Venkatachalam hill that forms part of the seven hills of Tirumala, and hence the temple is also known as the Temple of Seven Hills (Saptagiri in Sanskrit, Edukondalu in Telugu , The presiding deity of the temple, Lord Venkateswara, is also known by other names - Balaji or Srinivasa or Perumal.The temple is the richest and the most visited place of worship in the world. The temple is visited by about 50,000 to 100,000 pilgrims daily, while on special occasions and festivals, like the annual Brahmotsavam, the number of pilgrims shoots up to 500,000, making it one of the most visited holy place in the world. According to the legend, the temple has a self-manifested idol murti of Lord Vishnu, with the Lord believed to have resided here for the entire Kali Yuga. In Sri Vaishnava tradition, the temple is considered one of the 108 Divya Desam sites.
My personal view of the Lord Sri Venkateswara is that we Andhras/Telugus who come from Andhra Pradesh or other parts of India. We should gather for all the festivals conducted at any Sri Venkateswara Temples either in Malaysia or India or anyway. As Lord Sri Venkateswara(Tirupati) of Andhra Pradesh is most worship in the world. The materials, songs, books and etc about the Lord are found the most. This in a way could help to gather US united under 1 roof and work towards 1Telugu.
Saturday, September 12, 2009
On 11/9/2009 about 100 Telugus and others gathered to pay tribute to the late C.M. Dr. Y.S. Rajasekhara Reddy Garu at the Indian High Commission Kuala Lumpur.Malaysia
Smt Durga Priya was the Master of Ceremony of the event who read out detailed biography and also recited a Telugu poem about the late C.M. Dr. Y.S. Rajasekhara Reddy Garu.
Sri Dr Achaiah Kumar Rao, President of Telugu Association of Malaysia (TAM) thanked all those who attended and highlighted that late C.M. Dr. Y.S. Rajasekhara Reddy Garu(YSR) is a great lost not only for India but also the Telugus outside of India. As it was during his term that AP Government provided about 6000 Telugu primary text books for our Malaysian Telugu students and even allowed Telugu teachers from AP to help the holiday classes conducted in Malaysia. The President went on to say that "I hope and pray that good tides with the Government of AP would continue".
The guest of honour for the event was His Excellency Ashok K. Kantha, Indian High Commissioner of Malaysia who also added that it is very saddened to lose a great leader of his kind. His Excellency added Dr YSR initiated a variety of programmes that influence the Economy of Andhra Pradesh and for the benefit of the common people and farming community.Followed by Indian classical music by Sitarist Steven and tabla specialist Sri Ravi.
Friday, September 4, 2009
My Heartest & Deepest Condolences to the State Government of Andhra Pradesh for the death of
Tuesday, August 25, 2009
Kuchipudi is a Classical Telugu dance form from Andhra Pradesh, a state of South India. Kuchipudi is the name of a small village in the Divi Taluq of Krishna district that borders the Bay of Bengal and with resident Brahmins practising this traditional dance form, it acquired the present name.
With the dance form attaining perfection by the time of Golconda king Abdul Hassan Tanesha, Kuchipudi brahmins are said to have received 600 acres (2.4 km²) of land as an endowment from Tanesha for the great presentation before him.
Siddhendra Yogi is said to be the first scholar to give it the current form of dance drama. Bhamakalapam is one of his celebrated compositions. He also reserved the art to males by teaching it to young brahmin boys of the village. However, in modern times, the art has been dominated by women.
The performance usually begins with some stage rites, after which each of the character comes on to the stage and introduces him/herself with a daru (a small composition of both song and dance) to introduce the identity, set the mood, of the character in the drama. The drama then begins. The dance is accompanied by song which is typically Carnatic music. The singer is accompanied by mridangam (a classical South Indian percussion instrument), violin, flute and the tambura (a drone instrument with strings which are plucked). Ornaments worn by the artists are generally made of a light weight wood called Boorugu.
Some of the well known people in this tradition are Dr. Vempati Chinna Satyam,Guru Jayarama Rao and Vanashree Rao Vedantam Lakshminarayana, Dr. Uma Rama Rao, Tadepalli Perayya, Chinta Krishna Murthy, Vedantam Sathya Narayana Sarma, Dr. Korada Narasiha Rao ,Sobha Naidu, Pasumarthi Venu Gopala Krishna Sarma, Raja Reddy and Radha Reddy swagath kuchipiudi, Mahamkali Surya Narayana Sarma,  Dr. Yashoda Thakore, Sarala Kumari Ghanta, Yamini Reddy, Vijayapal Pathloth, Vamshee Krishna Varma.
The prominence of Kuchipudi dance form is not limited to India alone. There are now a number of popular Kuchipudi teachers, choreographers and dancers in North America and Australia
In Malaysia, the Malaysia Kuchipudi Sisters, Kasthoori Ramanaidu and Thachayani Ramanaidu. The siblings have the distinction of being the first Indian classical dancers from Malaysia to have been fully trained in kuchipudi. Known as the Malaysia Kuchipudi Sisters. Having studied bharatanatyam from the ages of six and seven respectively, Kasthoori and Thachayani received honours as The Temple of Fine Arts (TFA) Bharatanatyam Nrityanjali graduates in 1998. Their deep interest in different dance styles and their own cultural background, however, inspired them to take up kuchipudi as well.
The sisters trained with the great kuchipudi master Vempati Chinna Satyam in India for four years, under a scholarship provided by the Indian Council for Cultural Relationship set up by the Indian High Commission. Kasthoori and Thachayani have performed with their teacher in prestigious festivals like the Perur Dance Festival in Coimbatore and the Vizaq Festival in Vishakapatnam. They also gave solo performances at the Hyderabad Festival and were involved in many of their teacher’s dance productions. Since completing their training in 2004, the sisters have returned to Malaysia and have been teaching kuchipudi and bharatanatyam in TFA. In fact, Kasthoori and Thachayani are proponents of an art form with a long and unique history who also performed at the International Telugu Conference/ Golden Jubilee Celebration held on 3, 4,5/3/2006 at Genting International Convention Centre, Genting Highland, Malaysia.
Wednesday, August 19, 2009
There were more than 60 National Type Primary Telugu Schools in Malaysia. And most of the schools were in Perak,Selangor,Negeri Sembian,Kedah, Johore and Pahang, as wherever there were heavy pockets of Telugu population. The following are the names of the Telugu teachers.
Sri Netheti Duragaiah, Sri Timothy, Sri Vishnubatla Bapunaidu, Sri. B.Simanchalam and Mr.Alluru Kannaiah Naidu, Mr.Manikya Rao, Mr.Munukooti Subbarao, Mrs.Kunda Shanthamma and Sri Betha Ramasamy ,Sri Koruvada Vengkappa, Sri Madhini Somunaidu, Sri Adari Appalanaidu, Sri Boddi Samudram, Sri Koribilli Appalanaidu, Sri Nysetti Ramamurthy, Sri Kaseena Ramaniah, Sri Dwarapudi Somunaidu, Sri Ennala Ramulu, Sri Achanna Sri Paradesi Simanchalam, Sri Yellapu Krishnamurthy Sri A.Subramaniam, Sri K Abraham, Sri Mande Laxamana, Sri A.Appalanaidu, Sri B.K.Samudram, Sri B.K.Simanchalam, Sri Gummadi Appalanaidu, Sri N Appalanarasiah, Sri Balakrishna, Miss Sarammah, Miss V.B.Paapa, Miss Elizabeth, Sri Bangaru, Sri Dhuppatla Chinnayya, Sri Gorli Dhemudu, Sri Veerasamy, Sri D.V.Sree Ramulu, Sri Yellapu Apparao, Sri Gopisetti Sreeramulu, Sri Polamarasetti Ramulu, Sri Polamarasetti Laxmana, Sri B. Narayana, Sri Mani, Sri Karri Atchutha Ramaiah taught POL Telugu classes at Sri Satya Sai school, Jalan Puchong, Kuala .Lumpur
Source : Five Generations of Telugus in Malaysia- Sri Appanah Naidu
Saturday, August 8, 2009
Telugu originated from a hypothesized Proto-Dravidian language. Although Telugu belongs to the South-Central Dravidian language subfamily, it is a highly Sanskritized language. As Telugu savant C.P Brown states in page 35 of his book "A Grammar of the Telugu language": "if we ever make any real progress in the language the student will require the aid of the Sanskrit Dictionary, and cannot even talk or write Telugu with any ease or precision, unless he masters the first principles Sanskrit orthography." Inscriptions containing Telugu words dated back to 400 BCE were discovered in Bhattiprolu in Guntur district. English translation of one inscription as reads: “Gift of the slab by venerable Midikilayakha".
The etymology of Telugu is not known for certain. It is explained as being derived from trilinga, as in Trilinga Desa, "the country of the three lingas". According to a Hindu legend, Trilinga Desa is the land in between three Shiva temples namely Kaleshwaram, Srisailam and Draksharamam. Trilinga Desa forms the traditional boundaries of the Telugu region.The people who lived in these regions were also referred to as Telaga Caste seems to have been derived from Trilinga Desam. Other forms of the word, such as Telunga, Telinga, Telangana and Tenunga were also seen. It is also said that Trilinga, in the form "Triliggon" occurs in Ptolemy as the name of a locality to the east of the Ganga river. Other scholars compare Trilinga with other local names mentioned by Pliny, such as Bolingae, Maccocalingae, and Modogalingam. The latter name is given as that of an island in the Ganges. A.D. Campbell, in the introduction to his Telugu grammar, suggested that Modogalingam may be explained as a Telugu translation of Trilingam, and compared the first part of the word modoga, with mUDuga, a poetical form for Telugu mUDu, three. Bishop Caldwell, on the other hand, explained Modogalingam as representing a Telugu mUDugalingam, the three Kalingas, a local name which occurs in Sanskrit inscriptions and one of the Puranas.
According to K.L. Ranjanam, the word is derived from talaing, who were chiefs who conquered the Andhra region. M.R. Shastri is of the opinion that it is from telunga, an amalgamation of the Gondi words telu, meaning "white", and the pluralization -unga, probably referring to white or fair-skinned people. According to G.J. Somayaji, ten- refers to "south" in Proto-Dravidian, and the word could be derived from tenungu meaning "people of the South".
The ancient name for Telugu land seems to be telinga/telanga desa. It seems probable that the base of this word is teli, and that -nga, or gu is the common Dravidian formative element. A base teli occurs in Telugu (teli meaning "bright" and teliyuTa meaning "to perceive"). However, this etymology is contested. Telugu pandits commonly state Tenugu to be the proper form of the word, and explain this as the ‘mellifluous language’ from tene or honey. However, this claim does not appear to be supported by scholarly opinion. The renunciation[clarification needed] of the name of the language; 'Telugu' is a British legacy that still clings on in the print media. In fact, many of the 'Thelugu' words referred below in this article have to be rewritten to differentiate between 't' and 'th', and similarly 'd' and 'dh' sounds; otherwise some words mean either funny stuff, or a completely different meaning than what an intended word represents, or offensive.
AMS Says: September 17, 08 at 12:23 am
You make a movie with that guy who created Starwars. Steven Speilberg, hope got his name right.
And maybe you can collaborate Stephen King for the scary stuff… hehe..good read,
Thevarajan Says: May 3, 09 at 8:08 am
i am quite sure that parameswara, as the name suggests in sanskrit language, parama (supreme) and iswara (lord), came to temasek from palembang. but where was he before that??
he and company were escaping from another place – sri lanka, after trying to settle and rule there. but even before that, his home was – you guessed, tamil nadu, india! he was an indian prince the chronology should read:
parameswara, indian prince — sri lanka — palembang — temasek — melaka
his final destination and subsequent rule was significant, but equally significant was his country of origin
Marc Neal Says: July 8, 09 at 4:41 pm
Parames(h)wara was a tamil outlaw. Maybe from Mainland Tamil land or SriLanka (at that time predominently Tamil as the Aryans were still migrating there). The Tamils being seafarers, he fled to Sumatra and did what he knows best…became an outlaw there too. He had to flee there too and came to Temasik…Got into trouble there too.
By now he got fed up of running so he sets up base in the jungles of Malaka his hideout. builds a small army of pirates and loots the straits and builds his rishes and declares himself king…
The indian influence is too strong in south east asia to deny this fact…Hinduism, Sanscrit or more rightly tamil (south indian) names, sculptures all the way east in Angkor Wat which is similar to the Tamil sculptures found til date in Tamilnadu India…
Parameswara converted to Islam to get protection from the traders from North Indians (Islamic Sultanates) and Arabs. Then, married a chinese noble lady to get protection from the chinese. Thus, avoiding any conflict or takeover of his small and fragile kingdom Hence, The Malay royality is actually half chinese royalty and half indian outlaw. Assuming any relation to Alexander the Great is just unfounded and ludicrous
thinkingScott Thong Says: July 8, 09 at 4:57 pm
What about the aliens theory? :p
Btw, any links for us to read up more on Parameswara as a historical figure? I’d like to learn more about his pre-Sumatera days.
enkatesulujuval Says: August 8, 09 at 2:07 pm
Parameswara is a Telugu as looking at the name itself, as all tamil names end with n. I have read his articles that says he is a Telugu and his links with Central India (Andhra Pradesih) There are more Telugus than Tamil in this World. Even most spoken language of the South is Telugu, Andhra Pradesh itself about 90 million while 40% of Tamil Nadu are Telugus and what other part of India, Malaysia,Singapore and others
please,leave a comment
Tuesday, August 4, 2009
Malaysia Telugu Sangamu is in the midst of organising a Grand Mega show on 7th of November 2009 at Stadium Negara, Kuala Lumpur and it hopes at least 30 thousands Telugus would gather for this occasion and inviting the Prime Minister of Malaysia as the chief guest of honour together with 1st Telugu statesman, the chief minister of Andhra Pradesh, India
Telugu speaking Expatriates mostly from Andhra Pradesh, India, working in Malaysia holding weekly sunday worship in the Methodist Church, Kuala Lumpur (near Palm Court, Brickfields). Sunday worship is conducted between 4.00pm and 6.00pm. Contact the following members for further information: Sis. Pramila Karunaivell:019-6188343, Bro.Syam Anil
Saturday, July 18, 2009
I would like to direct this piece of my writing to all the well-known personalities of Telugu Film Industry, which includes the directors, producers, actors, actresses, technicians etc.
Here in Malaysia we have been deprived of all the thrills and chills, which we get while watching our favorite actors and actresses movies. All over the world i.e. USA, UK, DUBAI, SINGAPORE etc. Telugu movies are being screened but not in MALAYSIA. Why is this apathy towards Malaysia? Here we are in big number. I am talking about Telugus from Andhra Pradesh. Surely any producer can screen his movie for at least 3 days and make handsome profit. Here we are around 4000(approx). Another plus point of screening a Telugu movie is there are nearly 3 lakh local Malaysian Telugus. Among them at least 50% are still following our Andhra tradition and customs, which is very much evident when we go for UGADI or any other festival celebrations here. They do follow all the happenings in our state Andhra Pradesh and do feel very proud talking in Telugu even though it's not at the purest form.
Till yesterday somehow we used to get the newly released Telugu VCD's (pirated one's) in the 2nd week of the movie release in ANDHRA PRADESH. But now that too has dried out because of serious action taken by our film industry. There seems to be a sudden lull among the telugu movie lovers here as none of the new movies are being released through VCD's and if we get those pirated versions (they are just awful) we just cannot watch them because the prints are too bad to even watch for 10-15 minutes. So what to do? Where to watch the movies? Previously two movies namely "VASU" and "SANTOSHAM" were screened using a projector and DVD simulation, which was sort of OK. But the thing over here was we somehow watched the movie on a bigger screen rather than watching in our television sets. It was ok but once the organizer got summons from the Telugu film industry there has not been a single movie till date. Let me tell you one of the bad experiences, which I had very recently.
The date was announced i.e Aug 31,2002. It was a weekend. The expectations were high. A CHIRANJEEVI movie, "INDRA", for the first time in Malaysia. For weeks, I had been following the updates on the latest buzz on "INDRA". Here almost all the tickets were sold. We all have really planned everything for that day. Neither a crashed server (as most of the guys here are in to software industry) nor a severe thunderstorm could stop us from being at the theater on that day.
All of us were very anxious, rife with expectations, enlightening the ones who didn't have too much knowledge about the movie "INDRA" as it has already released in Andhra Pradesh and USA, creating havoc among the public, along with Chiru's sagas and lore. As the day was nearing the anticipation levels had soared sky high. But I wished that anticipation was fulfilled. Just the day before, the writing was on the wall. The show was cancelled because the organizer got a call from MR.ASHWINI DUTT's office in Hyderabad. The expression on the enthusiastic fans faces was akin to a situation if batsmen Sachin Tendulkar were to get out on a low score at a key cricket match. At the cancellation of the movie, I had seen people who were very much seesawed between the ecstasy of expectations and agony of the cancellation of the movie.
As I already wrote about two movies being screened earlier, both the movies went fulls with the ticket rate at RM10/- & RM13/-. Nearly 500 people watched the movie. Screening of "INDRA" was also planned in the same way but one call from the producer's office has jeopardized the so-called screening of the movie "INDRA". Till date we couldn't see the movie. What do the producers expect us to do? Go to India and see the movie, which is like asking too much from us. And when we read articles on the movie celebrations around the world we feel very happy and at the same time get frustrated beyond control. Somebody from the industry has to understand our plight and do the needful. Even we want to enjoy the movies like the Telugites in USA, UK, DUBAI, SINGAPORE.
So my sincere wish to all the well known personalities of our blossoming and evergreen Telugu Film Industry is either let the VCD's be released by the 2nd week (obviously I am referring to the pirated one's) or else please do the necessary arrangements to screen the telugu movies her also in Malaysia and do let us also enjoy the telugu movies like everyone elsewhere in the world.
Sunday, July 5, 2009
Emperor Krishnarayalu was not only a great warrior and administrator, but also an accomplished poet. As a patron of art and Telugu literature he was unsurpassed in the history of Telugus. He wrote Amuktamalyada, a ‘prabandhamu.’ Prabandhamu is a variety of Telugu poetry which is mainly a narrative or a continued discourse. Often sensuality (sringaramu) dominates in Prabandhas. In Amuktamalyada, Emperor Krishnaraya beautifully describes the pangs of separation suffered by Godadevi (the human incarnation of mother Earth, the wife of Lord Vishnu) for her lover Lord Vishnu. He describes Godadevi’s physical beauty in thirty verses. Even the descriptions of spring and monsoon seasons add to the strength of sensuality. The sensual pleasure of union extends beyond the physical level and becomes a path to the spirituality and ultimate union with the lord Vishnu leading to Moksha, a state of being unity with God. Here Godadevi represents the humanity and her longing for Lord Vishnu (the Ultimate Supreme God) is the humanity’s search for Moksha and divinity. One of the main characters in this ‘prabandhamu’ is Vishnuchittudu, the father of Godadevi. Lord Vishnu commands Vishnuchittudu to teach King of Pandya Dynasty the path of knowledge to Moksha. There are several short tales described in Amuktamalyada in the course of the main story of Godadevi, e.g., narration of Khandikhya-Kesidvaja, Maladasari, Yamunacharya, Chandala-Brahmarakshasa Vivadamu-the argument between chandala (outcaste) and brahmarakshasa (spirit of a Brahmin), etc. The main purpose of this prabandhamu is to spread the Vaishnavite religion and the path of knowledge. Emperor Krishnarayalu was also well-versed in Sanskrit and Kannada languages. “Jambavati Kalyanamu” is his Sanskrit work.
Krishnarayalu’s reign was the golden age of Telugu literature, and is comparable to the Pariclean age of Greece and Elizabethan age of England. Eight poets known as ‘Astadiggajalu’ (eight elephants in the eight cardinal points such as North, South etc.) decorated his court known as ‘Bhuvanavijayamu.’ According to the Vaishnavite religion there are eight elephants in eight corners in space and hold the earth in its place. Similarly these eight poets were eight pillars of his literary assembly. These Astadiggajas were: Allasani Peddana, Nandi Timmana, Madayyagari Mallana, Dhurjati, Ayyalaraju Ramambhadrudu, Pingali Surana, Ramarajabhushanudu, and Tenali Ramakrishnudu.
Among these eight poets Allasani Peddana is considered to be the greatest and is given the title of ‘Andhra Kavita Pitamaha’ (the father of Telugu poetry). Manucharitramu is his popular prabandha work. Paddana dedicated this prabandha to Emperor Krishnarayalu. Nandi Timmana wrote ‘parijataapaharanamu’ and dedicated it to the Emperor. Madayyagari Mallana wrote ‘Rajasekhara Charitramu.’ Dhurjati wrote Kalahasti Mahatyamu and Ayyalraju Ramabhadrudu wrote ‘Ramaabhyudayamu.’ Pingali Surana wrote “Raghavapandaveeyamu,’ a dual work with double meaning, a novel experiment in Telugu literature. This work describes both Ramayanamu (story of Lord Rama) and Bharatamu (story of Pandavas). Battumurty alias Ramarajabhushanudu wrote “Kavyalankarasangrahamu,” “Vasucharitramu,” and “Harischandranalopakhyanamu.” Among these works the last one is a dual work which tells simultaneously the story of King Harischandra and King Nala. Tenali Ramakrishnudu (he changed his family name from Garlapati based on his family residency in Tenali City) first wrote ‘Udbhataradhya Charitramu,’ a Shaivite work. However, he converted to Vaishnavism later and wrote Vaishnava devotional texts “Panduranga Mahatmyamu,” and “Ghatikachala Mahatmyamu.”
The period of Vijayanagra Empire is known as “Prabandha Period,” because of the prabandha literature produced during this time. Among the various Telugu rulers of this period, Emperor Krishnarayalu’s rule is outstanding and is known as the Golden Age of Telugu Literature. Vijayanagara Empire was founded in 1336. The fall of the empire began in 1565 with the war of Tallikota (or Rakshasi Tangadi). The period from 1336 through 1565 is considered to be one of the best periods in the Andhra history. The fall of the empire started during the period of Aliya (Araveeti) Ramarayalu, son-in-law of Emperor Tuluva Krishnarayalu. Ramarayalu removed many Brahmin governors who were faithful to Tuluva family. He also recruited thousands of Muslims into his army. During the war of Tallikota, in which Ramarayalu was fighting the combined Muslim forces of Golconda, Bijapur, Ahmednagar and Bidar, he was stabbed in the back and killed by his Muslim generals and troops. However, Araveeti dynasty continued for another hundred years from Penugonda as capital. The Vijayanagara dynasty slowly died as the smaller kingdoms declared independence and Telugu people remained divided and ruled by Muslims and British until the present state of Andhra Pradesh was formed in 1956, beginning the modern history of Telugus as part of the Indian Union.
Domingos Paes, a Portuguese merchant who lived in Vijayanagaram City (1520-22) described Emperor Krishnarayalu: “… He is the most feared and perfect king that could possibly be, cheerful of disposition and very merry, he is one that seeks to honor foreigners, receives them kindly…. He is a great ruler and man of much justice….”
Sreenivasarao Vepachedu, May 7, 2000
Wednesday, July 1, 2009
The vast majority of Telugus are Hindus. There are also some Telugus who are Christians or Islam. Each village has its main temple—often dedicated to a great Hindu god, usually Rama or Siva—as well as small shrines to numerous village deities, most of which are female.
Religious Beliefs. Hinduism lacks a centralized ecclesiastical hierarchy or unified authority officially defining doctrine. The specifics of religious customs vary widely from one locality to another and even between different castes in the same village. Among the major types of ritual are family Ceremonies, caste ceremonies, and village ceremonies. In addition the range of deities worshiped varies between localities. Many deities are associated with particular places or specialized powers or seasons. But a unifying theme is a system of worship called puja in which offerings are presented to a deity in return for protection and help. The offerings imply a subordination by the worshipers and include the receiving back of part of the items offered—after their spiritual essence has been partaken of by the deity. Overarching the host of specific deities is a transcendent divinity, bhagavan or devudu, responsible for cosmic order. People conceive of this deity in personified forms such as Vishnu and his associated circle of gods—including his ten incarnations, among whom are Rama and Krishna, and their various female consorts, such as Lakshmi, Sita, and Rukmini. Shiva and gods associated with him include his sons Ganapati and Subrahmaniam and his wife Parvati. Settlements, villages or towns, have a tradition of female "village deities" (grama devatas) who protect their localities as long as they are properly propitiated but cause illnesses if they are not. Ghosts of deceased humans, especially those of people who died untimely deaths, can hover about and interfere with people, as can other malevolent forces such as inauspicious stars and evil spirits. These thwart people's plans or render their children ill.
Religious Practitioners. A person acting as the officiant in a temple, conducting or assisting the worship, is known as a pujan, or priest. Brahmans serve as priests in temples to deities associated with the scriptural deities known throughout India, such as Rama, Shiva, or Krishna. But members of many other castes, some of quite low social rank, act as priests for a wide range of lesser deities.
Ceremonies. There is little uniformity in the celebration of festivals across the Telugu country. Each region presents a kaleidoscopic variation of interpretations and emphases on common themes. In the northeast, Makara Sankranti is the principal harvest festival. It features castes worshiping the tools of their trades and a period of fairs featuring elaborate night-long operatic drama performances. In the northwest, Dasara and Chauti are the festivals during which castes worship their implements. Farther south, near the Krishna River, Ugadi is a time when artisans worship their tools. All regions have festivals that honor Rama, Krishna, Shiva, and Ganapati.
Village goddess festivals, celebrated on dates unique to individual settlements, are also among the most elaborate celebrations of the year. These rituals—entailing the offering of chickens, goats, or sheep—mobilize extensive intercaste cooperation to ensure the health of the whole community. Also important in the worship of village goddesses is the practice of making vows to achieve specific personal benefits, such as the curing of ailments or finding of lost objects. Periodically when emergencies arise—in the form of epidemics, a spate of fires, or sudden deaths—these goddesses are believed to require propitiation.
Life-cycle rituals vary greatly between castes and regions. All serve to define social statuses, marking the transitions Between immaturity and adult (married) status, as well as Between life and death. They also serve to define circles of interdependent relatives and castes. Weddings stand out as the most elaborate and significant life-cycle rites. They are highly complex, involve huge expenditures, last several days, and entail the invitation and feeding of large numbers of guests. Funerary rites are also highly significant, defining the lineal relatives who share ritual pollution caused by the death of a member. In addition, they mark social statuses by treating the body of a man differently from that of a woman (cremating it face up or face down, respectively) and by disposing of the body of an immature child differently from that of a married adult (by burial or cremation, respectively).
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